About Zach Mayock - DieselIQ

Meet Zach

Zach is a BMW enthusiast with a passion for performance. With over 10 years of experience modifying and performing DIY work on BMWs, he’s developed a deep understanding of virtually every BMW engine. He’s also the proud owner of a 600whp N54 with upgraded twin turbos and an E30 325i drift car and has a particular affinity for the S58 engine. Zach is highly knowledgeable about all things BMW, but his expertise in tuning and performance mods sets him apart. His experience as an enthusiast, combined with his technical knowledge, makes him an essential resource for anyone looking to improve the performance of their BMW.

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We’ll break this down into the following sections:

  • General N54 Information
  • N54 Standard Maintenance
  • Common N54 Engine Problems
  • N54 Tuning & Modding

*We will continue adding to this post over time. Please let us know in the comments if there is something you would like to see discussed.

General N54 FAQ’s

What is the BMW N54?

The BMW N54 is a 3.0L inline 6 twin turbocharged, direct injected, gasoline engine produced from 2006-2016. It was BMW’s first mass-production turbocharged, gasoline engine. BMW’s N54 engine was an instant success, earning 5 consecutive International Engine of the Year awards. Additionally, it took home 3 straight Ward’s 10 Best Engines awards.

What BMW’s use the N54 Engine?

  • 2008-2010 135i
  • 2011 1M
  • 2007-2010 335i
  • 2011-2013 335is
  • 2008-2010 535i
  • 2008-2012 740i
  • 2008-2010 X6 35i
  • 2009-2016 Z4 35i

How Much Horsepower does the BMW N54 Have?

BMW released the N54 with a quoted 300hp and 300 lb-ft. However, early dyno testing indicated the N54 was underrated from the factory. Many dynos put the N54 in the ballpark of 275-285whp and 280-290wtq. Applying a standard 15% drive-train loss suggests the N54 really made 320-335hp and 330-340 torque straight from the factory. Take this next comment with a grain of salt as we cannot find the source. However, we believe BMW claims to rate horsepower as the minimum amount of power the engine will make in any driving circumstances. Hypothetically meaning, the N54 is rated to make 300hp at 8,000+ feet elevation in 100 degree weather. Take the N54 to sea level in 40 degree weather and it’s going to look underrated.

Does the N54 Have Forged Internals?

Yes, the crankshaft and rods are forged from the factory. The pistons are cast, yet remain strong.

BMW N54 Standard Maintenance FAQ’s

What are the Common N54 Standard Maintenance Items?

We will only be focusing on engine maintenance (ignoring brakes, batteries, etc). Common N54 standard maintenance items include:

  • Oil & filter changes
  • Spark plugs and ignition coils
  • Fluids (transmission, differential, coolant)
  • Walnut Blasting / Intake valve cleaning

How Much Oil Does the N54 Hold? What is the N54 Oil Capacity?

The BMW N54 engine holds 6.9 quarts (6.5 liters) of oil.

What Oil Weights are Approved in the N54?

0W-30, 5W30, 0W40, and 5W40 are all approved oil weights for the N54. The weight you choose does not really matter. Although, we do recommend sticking with one weight once you pick one. 5W-30 has worked well on our N54’s during Colorado winters as well as Houston summers.

Check out our BMW E90 oil change guide for more details on N54 oil.

What is the Best Oil for the N54?

We run LiquiMoly 5W-30 in all three of our N54’s. We highly recommend this oil to others. Let’s leave it at that. There are plenty of great engine oils for the N54, and there are arguments for each one being better or worse than another. Most importantly, change the oil every 5,000-8,000 miles and run an LL-01 approved oil.

How Often Should I Change My N54’s Oil?

5,000-8,000 mile oil change intervals (OCI) are recommended. Your driving style should dictate the frequency of oil changes. If your N54 is mostly driven on long highway trips, you can likely get by on the higher 7,000-8,000 mile range. If you’re tracking your N54 often, then consider changing oils as often as 3,000-4,000 miles. Aggressively driven N54’s should consider OCI’s of 5,000-6,000 miles.

How Much Coolant Does the N54 Hold? What is the N54 Coolant Capacity?

N54 coolant capacity is ~9.5 quarts (9.0 liters). It is not uncommon to only get about 90-95% of the coolant out. As such, you will likely end up needing closer to 8-8.5 liters.

What is the Best Coolant/Water Mix for the N54?

A 50/50 coolant and water mix will work best for most climates. If you live in warmer climates, where temperatures rarely drop below freezing, then a 40% coolant and 60% water mix works well. Water is actually better for cooling. However, coolant helps reduce corrosion and lowers the freezing point.

Is N54 Coolant Really a Lifetime Fluid?

Yes and no. We would not advise running coolant past 100,000 miles. However, and this is a big however. Like most BMW’s, the N54 cooling system is prone to failures and leaks. It is highly unlikely you make it past 100,000 miles without some sort of cooling system issue. As such, you will likely effectively change the coolant before the time comes anyways.

How Often to Change N54 Spark Plugs?

Turbo, directed injected engines, like the N54, love to eat spark plugs alive. We recommend the following N54 spark plug change intervals:

The exact interval is dependent on your mods and driving style. Aggressively driven N54’s will require more frequent spark plug changes. Likewise, the more mods/power, the more frequent they will need to be changed. Spark plugs do not tend to “fail” over night, but rather they wear over time.

What N54 Spark Plugs Are Best?

OEM spark plugs run well on stock and lightly modded N54’s (you can also “upgrade” to 1-step colder plugs, without issue). FBO N54’s are best suited to 1-step colder spark plugs. Single turbo or upgraded twin turbo N54’s may consider upgrading to 2-step colder plugs.

NGK 95770 1-step colder spark plugs (linked above) are generally the best option for all stock turbo N54’s. Bosch 1-step colder plugs are also a solid choice; they are OEM on the BMW N55. There likely isn’t much benefit for stock engines to run colder plugs. NGK 97506 are two-step colder spark plugs on the N54, and are generally the best option for 500+whp N54’s.

Why Run Colder Spark Plugs on Modded N54’s?

Modded N54 engines generate more heat due to increased boost and power. Colder spark plugs are more efficient at transferring heat away from the tip of the spark plugs. If the spark plug tips become too hot they may ignite (or “spark”) too soon. As such, colder spark plugs help reduce the risk of engine knocks/pre-detonation. However, there may be a point where spark plugs are too cold.

What Happens if Spark Plugs are Too Cold for the N54?

Typically, going “too cold” isn’t a serious concern but there are some downsides. Spark plug tips that stay too cold are not effective at burning carbon deposits off the spark plug tips. This is more concerning on direct injected engines as fuel is sprayed right near the plug tips. When carbon builds-up on the spark plug tips they become less effective and require replacement sooner. There is no performance benefit to running a spark plug that is too cold and their lifespan will be reduced. As such, we recommend avoiding spark plugs that are too cold.

How Often to Change N54 Ignition Coils?

Similar to spark plugs, the N54 burns through ignition coils. Although, it’s not quite as bad and ignition coils generally have longer lives. As a general rule of thumb, you can usually get by with changing the ignition coils every 2nd time the plugs are swapped.  We recommend the following intervals:

  • Stock – 60,000-70,000 miles
  • Modded – 30,000-40,000 miles

How Expensive is N54 Standard Maintenance?

In general, the N54 is more demanding on standard maintenance as opposed to naturally aspirated, non direct injected engines. N54’s love to burn through plugs and coils, especially when tuned and modded. High quality oils and filters are more expensive than most car brands. Additionally, direct injection leads to the need for intake valve cleaning (walnut blasting), which typically costs $400-600 at an independent repair shop. The below costs assume you DIY the standard maintenance. Add is some extra costs if you’re N54 is serviced at a repair shop.

N54 Common Engine Problems FAQ’s

Is the N54 reliable?

The short answer: No, the N54 is not very reliable. They are not as unreliable as some may suggest. However, it is important to keep in mind – most N54’s on the road today are 10-13 years old. Any problems are really fair game on 10+ year old N54’s with 100,000+ miles. We wrote an in-depth post about The 8 Most Common N54 Engine Problems. The list below includes more common problems with a bit less analysis on each.

What Are the Most Common BMW N54 Engine Problems?

  • N54 Oil Leaks:
    • Valve cover and/or gasket (VC/VCG)
      • Typically appear around 100,000 miles, but not uncommon to appear as early as 60,000 miles.
    • Oil pan gasket
      • Typically appear past 120,000. Also not uncommon to occur sooner.
    • Oil filter housing and/or gasket (OFH/OFHG)
      • Usually appears around 100,000. Once again, not uncommon for oil filter housing or gasket leaks to happen sooner.
  • N54 Cooling System Problems
    • Water pump
      • It’s pretty rare the N54 water pump lasts past 100k miles. Our 335i almost made it, but decided to crap out around 98,000 miles. The 135i’s water pump took a dump prior to 50,000 miles. The 535i is on pump number 3; the first let go just after 50k miles, and the second around 90k miles.
    • Expansion Tank
      • Prone to cracking. Happened to our 335i and 535i prior to 100k miles. The 135i is on the original expansion tank, but it’s a low mileage car with ~60k miles at the time of writing.
    • Coolant Hoses
      • Cracks and leaks. It’s going to happen at some point. Our 335 and 535i know from experience.
  • N54 Belt & Tensioner
    • Keep an eye on this issue if you had an oil filter housing (OFH) leak. The OFH usually leaks directly onto the belt and pulleys. You really do not want the belt to give out on the N54, so replacing preventatively is always a good idea. The belt may potentially be pulled into the front main seal and timing chain. A few complete engine failures have occurred on the N54 due to this.
  • N54 Charge Pipe
    • Charge pipes are prone to failure on the N54. The factory pipe is made from thin plastic and is exposed to boosted pressures. Modded cars running 15+psi are more likely to cause cracked charge pipes, however it has happened at stock boost, too. On the contrary, our 135i and 335i have been running 15+ psi for years on stock charge pipes. Our N54 335i has even been pushed to 18-20psi on the stock charge pipe and it has yet to let go.
  • N54 High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP)
    • Most N54’s had this replaced several times under the 10 year, 120,000 mile extended warranty. The newest HPFP versions are not terribly faulty, but do still give out sometimes. We got our 535i in 2011, which suffered from two HPFP failures early on. Each were covered under warranty and it is on the original HPFP since then. The 135i and 335i each received new HPFP’s before we bought the cars. Both HPFP’s have been trouble free. Therefore, this is no longer a terribly common problem. Nonetheless, it’s worth mentioning as high pressure fuel pump failures plagued the N54 for it’s first 5-6 years and may still fail.
  • N54 Fuel Injectors
    • The dreaded fuel injector issues. Unfortunately, the N54 piezo injectors sucked for a long time. BMW is now on its 12th revision – referred to as index 12 injectors. As such, if your injectors need replacement we recommend opting for the index 12’s. Index 11 injectors are typically solid, too. It is thought that index 9 injectors were the worst, so avoid index 9 N54 injectors. BMW offered quite a few injector recalls. Double check to see if your N54 has a recall before replacing. These suckers cost $1500+.
  • N54 Turbo Issues
    • Waste-gate Rattle
      • This is the most common problem with N54 turbochargers. Rattle typically pops up as early as 40,000 mile, if not sooner on tuned/modded N54’s. Waste-gate rattle alone does not cause any significant issues. However, the turbochargers will require replacement if the waste-gate completely fails. BMW did offer an 8 year, 82,000 mile extended warranty for waste-gate rattle.
    • Turbo Failure
      • It’s not really fair to include this as a common problem. The N54 OEM twin turbos don’t usually fail out of nowhere. However, it is not uncommon for turbos with 100,000+ miles to begin showing signs of age. Especially since many N54’s have been tuned for years and years pushing double the stock boost.
  • VANOS Solenoids
    • Expect to replace VANOS solenoids around 100,000 miles. Some people try cleaning them, however it’s typically a short term solution. Even then, it doesn’t always work for the short term.
  • O2 Sensors
    • More of a standard wear and tear item, expect to replace O2 sensors by 120,000 miles. Mostly including this based on some misconceptions. Many N54’s are running catless downpipes, which makes some believe the post cat O2 sensors are rendered useless anyways. This is NOT true. The pre-cat sensors rely on the post-cat sensors to properly calibrate.
      • Single turbo N54’s are known to burn through O2 sensors. This often has to do with location of the sensors on single turbo cars and the serious heat from big single turbos.
  • Vacuum Lines
    • Faulty vacuum lines cause under-boost codes, such as the dreaded 30FF. It’s not uncommon for these to need replacement prior to 100,000 miles.
  • PCV Valve
    • Cheap and easy fix. Opt for the aftermarket RB or Burger Tuning PCV valve. $40 and a quick 5-10 minute install
  • Misfires (BS problem)
    • 99% of N54 misfires are user error; change my mind. People call this problematic all the time. It’s a bunch of horse crap. Misfires are caused by another underlying problem, such as leaking injectors. However, most often it’s related to old, worn spark plugs and/or ignition coils.

Well, OK. It looks like a lot of common problems…and it is. However, most N54’s are 10+ year old performance engines that have been poorly maintained and pushed well past their intended, 300hp design. We don’t truly believe the N54 is unreliable. It’s a performance engine that was so far ahead of its time. Heck, stock turbo N54’s are running with some pretty darn impressive performance cars that are an entire decade newer. If you believe the N54 is really THAT unreliable, please save your comments. Go join the FB groups with the other N54 owners that bought salvage title, 150,000 mile N54’s and complain about how unreliable they are.

N54 Tuning & Modding FAQ’s

What is the Best N54 Tune?

JB4 and MHD are the two best tunes for the N54, in our opinion. Run them as standalone tunes, or couple the JB4 with an MHD back-end flash (BEF) tune. JB4 + MHD BEF is our preference and recommendation.

Are Piggyback Tunes Bad for the N54?

No. Piggyback tunes, such as the JB4, have their limits but are in no way bad for the N54. Actually, they are typically the best tunes to start with. The JB4 is a great tuning option with amazing features. Some claim piggyback tunes cause the N54 to run too lean. That is not true. The N54 is a direct injected engine and runs leaner than non-direct injected engines. It is not uncommon to target 14:1 AFR’s at peak torque and 13:1 at peak power. However, as mentioned, piggyback tunes do have their limitations. They rely on the factory DME tune to control timing, fueling, AFR’s etc. At some point, the factory tune reaches a point where it simply does not allow for additional fueling. That may cause you to run lean.

How Much Horsepower can a Stock Turbo N54 Make?

A stock turbo N54 can make up to about 500-510whp. However, this is basically maxing out the N54 stock turbos with FBO, LPFP, inlets/outlets, heavy E85 mixes, and potentially meth injection. Although numbers really shouldn’t be quoted at the crank, we like to say about 500 horsepower is the safe limit for stock turbos. This translates to somewhere in the ballpark of 420-440whp (assuming 12-16% drive-train loss). With proper tuning and mods, the N54 stock turbos can make 440whp on less than 20 pounds of boost. As such, this should be a pretty safe limit on stock turbos.

How Much Torque can a Stock Turbo N54 Make?

Peak torque on a stock turbo N54 maxes around 550-560wtq. Again, the guidelines are more or less the same as above. Expect about 440-475wtq to be a safe limit on stock turbos.

How Much E85 can the N54 Handle?

A JB4 supports up to ~30% E85 mixtures. Anything more will require a flash tune or back-end flash tune. The stock LPFP can handle ~40% E85 on stock turbos. Higher E85 mixtures will require an upgraded LPFP. The stock direct injection can support 100% E85 but will max out around 500-550whp. The N54 needs the addition of port injection to go much further.

How do you Data-Log on the N54?

We wrote an in-depth post on data-logging: BMW N54 JB4 data-logging. This post applies to the JB4 specifically, but the parameters on MHD are more or less the same.

Why is N54 Data-Logging Important?

When tuning or modding your BMW it is important to data-log for several reasons. Most importantly, it can help ensure your N54 is running well or point you in the right direction if something is off. We highly recommend data-logging at least once every month or two to keep an eye on things. N54’s pushing lots of horsepower and running aggressive tunes may even consider data-logging on a daily or weekly basis.

What are the N54 Fueling Limitations?

The main fueling limitations lie with the LPFP and direct injection. The first limit you reach will be the LPFP, which typically caps out around 425-500whp, depending on E85 mixes. While direct injection has many benefits, the stock injectors simply cannot support much beyond 500-600whp, again depending upon E85 mixtures. A “stage 2” LPFP usually runs around $500. Unfortunately, the addition of port injection can be costly usually running at $1500+.

What does FBO N54 Mean? What does FBO Stand for?

FBO N54 stands for “full bolt-on”. The exact mods to be considered FBO vary. Most accept a tune, intake, downpipes, and front-mount intercooler as FBO. Some people think FBO N54’s must have a LPFP and turbo inlets/outlets to truly be full bolt-on. We consider the first option as FBO. LPFP and inlets/outlets are not as common so most people will say, “FBO E50 tune w/ stage 2 LPFP + inlets/outlets”, or something to that extent.

What is the Max Boost on N54 Stock Turbos?

We wrote a post about this here: N54 Stock Turbo Max Boost. The N54 stock turbos CAN make upwards of 25-26psi. However, we strongly recommend against doing so. Keep them in the ballpark of 17-18psi on stock inlets/outlets, and up to 20psi with upgraded inlets/outlets, if you’re worried about longevity. If you’re planning to upgrade anyways, then feel free to have some fun and max out the stock turbos. Though we still recommend keeping the turbos under 22-23psi.

What are the Best N54 Catless Downpipes?

VRSF catless downpipes are our favorite option for the N54. For $300, you can’t beat the balance of price and quality.

How Loud are N54 Catless Downpipes?

Catless downpipes alone are not terribly loud. They will definitely make some more noise on start up and gain a deeper, aggressive exhaust note under heavy acceleration. However, they are hardly noticeable, if at all, while cruising around town or on the highway.

How Much Horsepower (HP) do N54 Catless Downpipes Give?

Expected horsepower gains with catless downpipes range from roughly 10-25whp. The exact horsepower gains depend upon tuning and other factors.

Should I get Catless Downpipes on my N54?

We also wrote a post about catless and catted downpipes: BMW N54 Catless & Catted Downpipes. Yes, yes, and yes! This was one of our favorite modifications. Catless DP’s will provide a huge boost in feel on the butt-dyno. Turbo spool improves alongside impressive power gains. It’s mainly the quicker spool you notice as it definitely pins you back into the seat.

What are the Best N54 Dual Cone Intakes (DCI’s)?

We run the Burger Motorsports dual cones intakes on all of our N54’s. We also recommend VRSF DCI’s for their great quality and cost.

For international customers, Masata offers a great dual cone intake upgrade for the N54. Shipping to the US makes them more expensive, but for others the Masta DCI is an excellent choice.

How Much Horsepower (HP) do N54 DCI’s Give?

Expected horsepower gains from N54 DCI’s range from about 5-15whp. HP gains on tune-only N54’s will likely be on the lower side. Aggressive FBO tunes or upgraded turbos may experience gains in excess of 15whp.

Are DCI’s Worth it on the N54?

We highly recommend DCI’s for their looks, power gains, and awesome sounds. Turbo spool becomes more noticeable and the induction noises are intoxicating. For $80-100, do NOT pass this mod up!

What is the Best N54 FMIC?

Once again, we recommend VRSF FMIC’s for their excellent balance of quality and price. Lightly modded N54’s may be best opting for the 5″ stepped intercooler. However, if you’re FBO, plan to go FBO, or get upgraded turbos in the future, then consider upgrading to the 7.5″ option.

What are the Limits on Stock Internal N54 Engines?

A completely stock, un-opened N54 can typically handle somewhere in the ballpark of 650-750whp. About 700whp is a generally accepted “safe” limit for the N54. Of course, there are many factors that go into this and there really isn’t a perfect answer. It’s not a matter of, “Oh the N54 is going to explode at 750whp, but it will last for 30 years at 720whp.” Unfortunately, it’s just not that simple.

Most importantly, you want to have an excellent tune when pushing the limits of the N54. An excellent tune is never a bad thing to have anyways, but it becomes more important as power increases. You’ll also want to run at least E50 fueling and possibly even 100% E85. Meth injection may be a good idea, too.

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  1. Very nicely done
    I have searched and searched for information about the n54 motor for two years now and your post right here sums everything up you need to know about it give you all the information needed for the n54 motor very nice

  2. BMW 335i 2007 N54

    Hey guys I need help. My issue happen while normal driving on the freeway. Car hiccuped while changing gears went into limp mode and it wouldn’t up shift or downshift from third gear. Pulled over turned off the car and turned it back on, drove good. Next day same thing happened car hiccuped and fell into limp mode wouldn’t respond to paddles. I dont know whats wrong and service engine light came on. 2007 BMW 335i N54
    My cars throwing error code 2ad0 no message from transmission control unit, receiver DME, transmitter EGS/HIM/SMG/DCT.
    No clue what this code could be

    1. Can it be said that 5 years after the last N54 manufactured, all or almost all the common problems of the N54 have already been corrected, either with OEM or aftermarket parts or with parts from other more recent models?

  3. Hello all. I have a 08 535xi tuned with mhd and fbo. Currently at 186xxxkm.

    I am planing on doing a road trip in it in the up coming weeks and want to know whether I should go for it or not risk it.
    I’ve always wanted to take it out for a long drive especially to BC through the mountains but my question is will survive a 10hour 1200 km journey with the hot weather and increase and decrease in elevation ?

    1. Hi Krystian,

      Ultimately, that is a pretty hard question to answer, as there are a lot of variables to consider there. Ultimately it depends on how well you’ve kept up with servicing your car and preventative maintenance. Your cooling system is the most important aspect here, especially with the mileage of your car. Have you replaced your water pump, thermostat, and other prone-to-failure cooling system parts like the expansion tank and hoses. If not, just know that those are common points of failure on the N54, especially if it is super hot on your road trip. The same goes for the fuel system, as if you haven’t replaced your HPFP and injectors they could cause issues on an extended drive as well. I would also just check for any glaring oil or coolant leaks, as well as your belts. As long as you have been good with upkeep and maintenance, there is no reason your car can’t make that roadtrip.


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